PROJECT 5.7: Tracking ocean change – ocean observations and models
The ocean impacts Australia’s climate and the frequency and magnitude of extreme events. As the climate continues to change, it’s important to assess how the oceans are changing and the impact these changes may in turn have on Australia’s climate, now and into the future.
We’ve improved and delivered high quality ocean data vital for continued assessments of ocean change. Ocean observations and model experiments have been analysed to track and understand ocean changes, and to identify the key mechanisms of ocean heat uptake and changes in ocean salinity. We have also improved the representation of ocean heat uptake in Australia’s climate model (ACCESS), and other climate models, by identifying sources of bias in the models and provide solutions to reduce them.
This research has ensured high quality ocean datasets required for assessing our changing oceans are accessible for use by researchers around the world. The improved model simulations of ocean change has resulted in improved climate change projections. Data sets and analysis produced under the project has also informed global climate assessments, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports.
For more information
Dr Bernadette Sloyan, CSIRO
- Our changing oceans: Australia’s contribution to the Global Ocean Observing System – outlines how the ESCC Hub has helped to support many of Australia’s operational, data management and quality control activities of important global ocean observation networks.
- Ocean knowledge supporting climate decisions – summarises ocean research conducted by the ESCC Hub into the role of the ocean in the climate system. The Hub’s analysis and investigation of ocean observations, ocean modelling and assessment studies have laid the foundation for more reliable predictions and projections of severe climate events, global and regional sea level rise and development of future climate scenarios.
Publications and papers:
- Arroyo MC, Shadwick EH, Tilbrook B, Rintoul SR, Kusahara K. 2020. A continental shelf pump for CO2 on the Adélie Land coast, East Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125, e2020JC016302, doi: 10.1029/2020JC016302 | Full paper
- Bestley S, van Wijk E, Rosenberg M, Eriksen R, Corney S, Tattersall K, Rintoul S. 2020. Ocean circulation and frontal structure near the southern Kerguelen Plateau: The physical context for the Kerguelen Axis ecosystem study. Deep Sea Research Part II, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2018.07.013 | Abstract
- Black et al. 2021. Australian northwest cloudbands and their relationship to atmospheric rivers and precipitation. Monthly Weather Review. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-20-0308.1 | Abstract
- Chapman C.C, Lea M, Meyer A. et al. 2020. Defining Southern Ocean fronts and their influence on biological and physical processes in a changing climate. Nature Climate Change, 10, 209-219, doi: 10.1038/s41558-020-0705-4 | Full paper
- Cowley R, Killick RE, Boyer T, Gouretski V, Reseghetti F, Kizu S, Palmer MD, Cheng L, Storto A, Le Menn M, Simoncelli S, Macdonald AM, Domingues CM. 2021 International Quality-controlled Ocean Database (IQuOD) v0.1: the temperature uncertainty specification. Frontiers in Marine Science, doi:10.3389/fmars.2021.689695 | Full paper
- Dias FB, Fiedler R, Marsland SJ, et al. 2020. Ocean Heat Storage in Response to Changing Ocean Circulation Processes. Journal of Climate, 13(21), pp 1-18 doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-1016.1 | Full paper
- Dias FB, Domingues CM, Marsland SJ, Griffies SM, Rintoul SR, Matear R, Fiedler R, 2020. On the superposition of mean advective and eddy-induced transports in global ocean heat and salt budgets, Journal of Climate, 33, pp. 1121-1140, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0418.1 | Full paper
- Kennicutt MC, Bromwich, Liggett D, Njastad B, Peck L, Rintoul SR, Ritz C, Siegert MJ, Brooks CM, Cassano J, Chaturvedi S, Chen D, Dodds K, Golledge NR, Le Bohec C, Leppe M, Murray A, Chandrika Nath P, Raphael MN, Rogan-Rinnemore M, Schroeder DM, Talley L, Travouillon T, Vaughan DG, Wang L, Weatherwax AT, Yang H Chown SL. 2019. Sustained Antarctic Research: A 21st Century Imperative. One Earth Review, doi:10.1016/j.oneear.2019.08.014 | Full paper
- Marin M, Feng M, Phillips HE, Bindoff NL. 2021. A Global, Multiproduct Analysis of Coastal Marine Heatwaves: Distribution, Characteristics, and Long‐Term Trends, Journal Of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 126 (2), doi:10.1029/2020JC016708 | Abstract
- Patel RS, Llort J, Strutton PG, Phillips HE, Moreau S, Conde Pardo P, Lenton A. 2020. The biogeochemical structure of Southern Ocean mesoscale eddies. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125 (8), 1-24 , doi: 10.1029/2020JC016115 | Abstract
- Pellichero V, Boutin J, Claustre H, Merlivat L, Sallée JB, Blain S. 2020. Relaxation of wind stress drives the abrupt onset of biological carbon uptake in the Kerguelen bloom: A multisensor approach. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, doi:e2019GL085992 | Full paper
- Rathore S, Bindoff NL, Phillips HE, Feng M, 2020. Recent hemispheric asymmetry in global ocean warming induced by climate change and internal variability. Nature Communications, doi:10.1038/s41467-020-15754-3 | Full paper
- Rathore S, Bindoff N, Ummenhofer CC, Phillips HE, Feng M. 2020. Near-Surface Salinity Reveals the Oceanic Sources of Moisture for Australian Precipitation through Atmospheric Moisture Transport. Journal of Climate, (13), pp. 6707-6730, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0579.1 | Full paper
- Silvano A, Foppert A, Rintoul SR, Holland PR, Tamura T, Kimura N, Castagno P, Flaco P, Budillon, Haumann FA, Naveira Garabato AC, Macdonald AM. 2020. Recent recovery of Antarctic Bottom Water formation in the Ross Sea driven by climate anomalies, Nature Geoscience, 13, pp 780–78, doi:10.1038/s41561-020-00655-3 | Abstract
- Stewart KD, Hogg Amc, England MH. 2020. Response of the Southern Ocean Overturning Circulation to Extreme Southern Annular Mode Conditions, Geophysical Research Letters, 47(22), doi:10.1029/2020GL091103 | Accepted version. An edited version is published by American Geophysical Union | Abstract
- Stewart KD, Kim Wm, Urakawa S, Hogg AMcC, Yeager S, Tsujino H, Nakano H, Kiss AE, Danabasoglu G. 2020. JRA55-do-based repeat year forcing datasets for driving ocean–sea-ice models, Ocean Modelling, Volume 147, doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2019.101557 | Abstract
- Tan Z, Reseghetti F, Abraham J, Cowley R, Chen K, Zhu J, Zhang B, Cheng L. 2021. Examining the Influence of Recording System on the Pure Temperature Error in XBT Data. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-20-0136.1 | Abstract
- Thomas G, Purkey SG, Roemmich D, Foppert A, Rintoul SR. 2020. Spatial Variability of Antarctic Bottom Water in the Australian Antarctic Basin from 2018-2020 captured by Deep Argo. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, doi:10.1029/2020GL089467 | Full paper
- Wallace LO, van Wijk EM, Rintoul SR, Hally B. 2020. Bathymetry‐constrained navigation of Argo floats under sea ice on the Antarctic continental shelf. Geophysical Research Letters, 47 (11), doi: 10.1029/2020GL087019 | Abstract
This project is contributing to the following climate challenges:
Surface ocean warming is driving an enhanced hydrological cycle. We’re monitoring ocean salinity, which can help track that process.
Ocean warming rates and patterns set regional sea level rise rates. Our work will improve projections of ocean warming which will enable more accurate regional projections of sea level rise and extremes.
As the climate system’s heat reservoir, the rate of change of ocean heat content relates directly to Earth’s warming rate. Our work tracking and understanding global ocean heating rates is a practical way of tracking the efficacy of global greenhouse gas mitigation efforts.
This work will help to improve climate models so that improved climate change projections and climate information can be used to better inform agricultural and environmental systems management decisions.
Work in this project will enhance our ability to project changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate conditions, which will better inform infrastructure planning.