PROJECT 2.2: Enhancing Australia’s capacity to manage climate variability and climate extremes in a changing climate
Climate extremes such as heatwaves, floods and droughts have huge impacts on Australia’s communities and their natural and economic resources. These events are influenced by large-scale climate features, such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, and by changes in the climate due to human activities. Explaining the drivers of past extremes, variability and trends is crucial in providing confident projections of future climate changes and frequency of extreme events.
We’re analysing past climate variability and extremes to enhance our understanding of the underpinning climate drivers. Our focus is on climate variability driven from the oceans (including El Niño, La Niña and the Indian Ocean Dipole), and longer timescale extremes such as extended heatwaves, floods and droughts. We’ll use climate models to examine how these factors change as the global climate changes.
This analysis will provide greater clarity on what causes extreme events, identify trends and variation in large-scale climate features and extreme events and to what extent these events are caused by human activities. This information will be integrated into Australia’s climate change projections, enabling us to better plan for and respond to drought, heatwaves and floods.
For more information
Dr Pandora Hope, Bureau of Meteorology
This project is contributing to meeting the following climate challenges:
Modelling improvements developed in this project will enhance the quality of climate projections that are available to water managers and planners.
Agricultural and environmental managers will be able to use projections developed from work in this project to make more effective management decisions.
Research undertaken in this project will allow for better simulation of extreme events in climate projections, making them a more useful tool for governments and other agencies that are responsible for preparing for and managing the response to natural disasters.
Publications and papers
- Santoso et al. 2018. Dynamics and predictability of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation: An Australian perspective on progress and challenges. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0057.1 | Full paper
- Abellán E, McGregor S, England M, Santoso A. 2017. Distinctive role of ocean advection anomalies in the development of the extreme 2015-16 El Nino. Climate Dynamics, 1-18. doi: 10.1007/s00382-017-4007-0 | Abstract
- Cai W, Wang G, Gan B, Wu L, Santoso A, Lin X, Chen Z, Jia F, Yamagata T. 2018. Stabilised frequency of extreme positive Indian Ocean Dipole under 1.5 degrees C warming. Nature Communications, 9, doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03789-6 | Full paper
- Cai WJ, Wang GJ, Santoso A, Lin XP, Wu LX. 2017. Definition of Extreme El Nino and Its Impact on Projected Increase in Extreme El Nino Frequency. Geophysical Research Letters 44, 11184-11190, doi: 10.1002/2017gl075635 | Full paper
- Colman R, Power SB. 2018. What can decadal variability tell us about climate feedbacks and sensitivity? Climate Dynamics. doi: 10.1007/s00382-018-4113-7 | Abstract
- Chung C, Power SB. 2017. The non-linear impact of El Niño, La Niña and the Southern Oscillation on seasonal and regional Australian precipitation. Journal of Southern Hemisphere Earth Systems Science, 67(1), 25–45, doi:10.22499/3.6701.003 | Full paper
- Chung C, Power S, Santoso A, Wang G. 2017. Multi-year variability in the Tasman sea and impacts on Southern Hemisphere climate in CMIP5 models. Journal of Climate, doi:10.1175/jcli-d-16-0862.1 | Abstract
- Grose MR, Black M, Risbey JS, Uhe P, Hope PK, Haustein K, Mitchell D. 2017. Severe frosts in Western Australia in September 2016. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, doi:10.1175/bams-D-17-0088.1 | Full paper
- Herold N, Santoso A. 2017. Indian Ocean warming during peak El Nino cools surrounding land masses. Climate Dynamics, 1-16, doi:10.1007/s00382-017-4001-6 | Full paper
- Hope P, Lim E-P, Hendon H, Wang G. 2017. The effects of increasing CO2 on the extreme September 2016 rainfall across South Eastern Australia. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, doi:10.1175/bams-D-17-0094.1 | Full paper
- Hope P, Wang G, Lim E-P, Hendon HH, Arblaster JM. 2016. What caused the record-breaking heat across Australia in October 2015? Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 97(12), S122–S126, doi:10.1175/bams-d-16-0141.1 | Full paper
- Karoly D, Black M, Grose M, King A. 2016. The roles of climate change and El Niño in the record low rainfall in October 2015 in Tasmania, Australia. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 97(12), S127–S130, doi:10.1175/bams-d-16-0139.1 | Full paper
- Power SB and Delage FPD. 2018a. El Niño–Southern Oscillation and Associated Climatic Conditions around the World during the Latter Half of the Twenty-First Century. Journal of Climate. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0138.1 | Full paper
- Power SB, Delage FPD, Chung CTY, Ye H and Murphy BF. 2017. Humans have already increased the risk of major disruptions to Pacific rainfall. Nature Communications, 8, 14368, doi:10.1038/ncomms14368 | Full paper
- Power SB, Delage FPD, Wang GM, Smith I, Kociuba G. 2017. Apparent limitations in the ability of CMIP5 climate models to simulate recent multi-decadal change in surface temperature: implications for global temperature projections. Climate Dynamics, 49, 53-69, doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3326-x | Full paper
- Santoso A, McPhaden MJ, Cai W. 2017. The Defining Characteristics of ENSO Extremes and the Strong 2015/2016 El Niño. Reviews of Geophysics, 55(4), 1079-1129, doi:10.1002/2017rg000560 | Full paper
- Timmermann A, An S, Kug J, Jin F, Cai W, Capotondi A, Cobb K, Lengaigne M, McPhaden MJ, Stuecker MF, Stein K, Wittenberg AT, Yun K, Bayr T, Chen H, Chikamoto Y, Dewitte B, Dommenget D, Grothe P, Guilyardi E, Ham Y, Hayashi M, Ineson S, Kang D, Kim S, Kim W, Lee J, Li T, Luo J, McGregor S, Planton Y, Power SB, Rashid H, Ren H, Santoso A, Takahashi K, Todd A, Wang GM, Wang GJ, Xie R, Yang H, Yeh S, Yoon J, Zeller E, Zhang X. 2018. El Niño–Southern Oscillation complexity. Nature, 559, 535-545, doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0252-6 | Abstract
- Wang G, Cai W, Gan B, Wu L, Santoso A, Lin X, Chen Z, McPhaden MJ. 2017. Continued increase of extreme El Niño frequency long after 1.5°C warming stabilisation. Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/nclimate3351 | Abstract
- Wang G, Hope P, Lim E-P, Hendon HH, Arblaster JM. 2016. Three methods for the attribution of extreme weather and climate events. Bureau Research Report No. 018 | Full report